Adults may experience speech and language difficulties for a variety of reasons. Information about specific types of speech and language differences and disorders, as well as conditions that cause them is included below.
- Apraxia: Person has difficulty coordinating oral muscles to make a sound or sounds.
- Dysarthria : It results from impaired movement of the muscles used for speech production, including the lips, tongue, vocal folds, and/or diaphragm. The type and severity of dysarthria depend on which area of the nervous system is affected.
- Stuttering : Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called “disfluencies.”
- Voice : A voice disorder may be characterized by hoarseness, vocal fatigue, periodic loss of voice, or inappropriate pitch or loudness.
- Aphasia : It results from damage to the parts of the brain that contain language (typically in the left half of the brain). Individuals who experience damage to the right side of the brain may have additional difficulties beyond speech and language issues. Aphasia may causes difficulties in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, but does not affect intelligence.